Kurapika is a member of the Kurta tribe who were massacred by the Phantom Troupe (The Spiders) 4 years prior the Hunter exam. The Kurta tribe was an isolated group of people whose eyes would turn scarlet when angered or excited. These scarlet eyes were known to be beautiful, being one of the seven most beautiful in the world. Because of this, the Kurta tribe was constantly pursued and eventually massacred. The eyes of the tribe members were all taken away during the massacre. Kurapika is so far the only known survivor with a heart bent on revenge. He strives to have his revenge against the Phantom Troupe as well as recover the eyes of his tribe members.
Despite having a heart full of hatred, Kurapika is very kind and loyal towards his friends. He is an extremely intelligent person but at the same time reckless. Kurapika is from the materialization nen group and from determination, increased the power of his nen ability to the point that it was formidable against the Phantom Troupe.
Kurapika can conjure a unique weapon — five chains that extend from each finger on his right hand. Some of the fingers were specially designed to deal vengeance on the Phantom Troupe. To increase his effectiveness against the formidable Phantom Troupe, Kurapika places strict Limitations on the usage of his chains. The purpose of the chain on Kurapika’s index finger has yet to be revealed.
Shaped like a cross, it cures wounds by drawing from Enhancement abilities. When Kurapika is in his Specialist state, its ability is Enhanced and can heal serious injuries within seconds.
Shaped like a hook, it wraps around Spiders and restricts their movement. Also forcefully causes its prisoners to enter Zetsu, shutting off their aura and preventing the use of Nen abilities. Escape from the Chain Jail is only possible through brute force. Kurapika imposed a limitation onto this chain, it can only be used to deal with members of the Phantom Troupe. If this condition is violated, Kurapika will die. This condition was needed in order to increase the strength of the ability.
Shaped like a ball and chain, Kurapika uses this frequently under normal situations, for defensive and offensive purposes. It is also useful for other investigative activities, like determining the location of missing individuals. He also uses this chain to identify if someone is lying. It has a small ball-like weight at the end which moves in the direction of whatever he is dowsing for.
The Stake of Retribution, a blade on the end of the Judgment Chain, enters the victim’s body and wraps around the heart. Kurapika sets two conditions and if the victim violates either one, the chain crushes the heart, killing them. It can only be used while Kurapika’s eyes are scarlet. Kurapika himself has a blade wrapped around his heart, which he used to set the conditions of use for his Chain Jail ability.
When Kurapika’s eyes shift into scarlet, he changes from a Conjurer to a Specialist. This ability allows him to utilize all the types of Nen to 100% efficiency (for a Conjurer). In the manga, Kurapika explains this using the terms “Level” and “Force/Accuracy”. Kurapika’s “Levels” in the various Nen categories remain the same during Emperor Time, however, his Force and Accuracy for every category is raised to 100%. Thus, if Kurapika’s Level in Conjuration were 10, his Level in Emission (the polar opposite aura type) would be 4, and during Emperor Time, he would be evenly matched against a Level 4 Emitter at 100%. Outside of Emperor Time, his Force and Accuracy in Emission would at most be only be 40%.